Mary Cummins, Real Estate Appraiser, Animal Advocates, Los Angeles, California

Mary Cummins, Real Estate Appraiser, Animal Advocates, Los Angeles, California
Mary Cummins, Real Estate Appraiser, Animal Advocates, Los Angeles, California

Tuesday, May 18, 2021

Redlining in home loan financing - Mary Cummins, Real Estate Appraiser, Los Angeles, California


Redlining - Definition: To refuse (a loan or insurance) to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk.
The National Housing Act of 1934 created the Federal Housing Administration FHA to help revive the US economy after the Great Depression. The purpose of the FHA was to provide affordable loans so people could buy homes. Private lenders would make the loans and the federal government would insure them for losses. The new loans would have lower down payments, smaller monthly payments and were more affordable.
President Roosevelt's New Deal created the Home Owners Loan Corporation to help process the home loans. "To facilitate private investment through the FHA, the HOLC, and the Federal Home Loan Board Bank (FHLBB), the federal government crafted a national set of standards for assessing mortgage risk. Through its 1935 City Survey Program, the HOLC gathered data about neighborhoods from approximately 239 cities and compiled the results into a rating system ranging from A to D. Communities with A ratings represented the best investments for homeowners and banks alike; B, neighborhoods that were still desirable, C, those in decline, and D, areas considered hazardous. "A" communities generally had access to better amenities such as better schools, parks, shopping, transportation and were therefore more desirable. "D" communities generally were located near less desirable features such as industrial properties and they had fewer and lower quality amenities." To visually capture these rankings, the HOLC then turned these ratings into color-coded maps, using green for A, blue for B, yellow for C, and red for D – the origin of the term “redlining.”

Many researchers have stated the HOLC maps were more a consequence of existing ordinary and discriminatory lending practices as opposed to being a cause for them. Still, the spatial isolation could make it a self-fulfilling prophecy over time. Many have stated the ratings were just a description of the current state of the real estate cycle for each neighborhood. A "D" area could be revitalized, redeveloped into a "B" area. If that area improved with the addition of more public transportation, parks, schools, shopping, it could become an "A" area. This is what has happened in downtown Los Angeles and other areas such as Boyle Heights which some refer to as gentrification. Others have shown how the HOLC grades were more a function of factors such as housing condition, residential density, and housing type, as opposed to solely ethnic and racial composition. Over time some of these ratings became more associated with race and immigration status than unbiased risk. Generally poorer people, people of color and immigrants lived in the C, D areas because it was less expensive. Over time the redlining caused less investment in C, D areas and more in A, B areas causing a greater divide between the areas.

It must be noted that the actual HOLC maps never stated "D is a black area" or "D is an immigrant area." There were worksheets prepared by individuals which were used to determine the risk of each specific area. Those worksheets included many factors and descriptions including the following from top to bottom (see worksheet for an area of Los Angeles below), population, class and occupation, nationalities, income, "negro" %, building type, size, age, condition, owner/tenant % occupancy, home price bracket, sales demand, predicted price trend, sales demand, new construction, rate of sale of new construction, overhang of HOLC properties, description and characteristic of area.

Today in real estate appraisal and analysis we use all of the above factors except race and nationality. It's a violation of the Fair Housing Act to consider or mention race or nationality because it would be discrimination. All of the other factors are good indicators of value and trends. Now the US Census does include race and whether or not someone is "foreign born." The census has nothing to do with real estate sales or loans. It's more a population study.

That said the areas ended up correlating with higher populations of POC, immigrants and poor people based on affordability. If one were to note today property in the four distinct phases or life cycles of real estate, one would probably find POC, immigrants and poor people in those same areas because hazardous, run down, less desirable areas have lower rent, have cheaper homes to buy.
The Fair Housing Act of 1968 made redlining illegal. It became "unlawful to discriminate in the terms, conditions, or privileges of sale of a dwelling because of race or national origin." A bank could no longer refuse to make loans in certain areas. Banks can only refuse loans based on the credit, credit history, income, assets, debts, expenses of the buyer, borrower.

I am using this example below because it specifically mentions race, nationalities. Not all of the worksheets noted it. It was up to the individual filling in the form. We don't know how much weight the race, nationality had on the rating. We do know that race, immigrant status, being poor correlated with the lower C and D ratings because they correlated with lower income, lower net financial worth, lower credit ratings which affects affordability. This is not to say one caused the other. This also doesn't say one didn't cause the other. This is just to aid in the explanation of what "redlining" was.



Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the

Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the USDA. Mary Cummins is also a licensed real estate appraiser in Los Angeles, California.


Google+ Mary Cummins, Mary K. Cummins, Mary Katherine Cummins, Mary Cummins-Cobb, Mary, Cummins, Cobb, wildlife, wild, animal, rescue, wildlife rehabilitation, wildlife rehabilitator, fish, game, los angeles, california, united states, squirrel, raccoon, fox, skunk, opossum, coyote, bobcat, manual, instructor, speaker, humane, nuisance, control, pest, trap, exclude, deter, green, non-profit, nonprofit, non, profit, ill, injured, orphaned, exhibit, exhibitor, usda, united states department of agriculture, hsus, humane society, peta, ndart, humane academy, humane officer, animal legal defense fund, animal cruelty, investigation, peace officer, animal, cruelty, abuse, neglect #marycummins #animaladvocates #losangeles #california #wildlife #wildliferehabilitation #wildliferehabilitator #realestate #realestateappraiser #realestateappraisal #lawsuit

Saturday, May 15, 2021

Se habla Español. We speak Spanish. Mary Cummins Real Estate Appraiser Appraisal Los Angeles California

Se habla Español. We speak Spanish. Mary Cummins Real Estate Appraiser Appraisal Los Angeles California Se habla Español. We speak Spanish. Mary Cummins Real Estate Appraiser Appraisal Los Angeles California
Se habla Español. We speak Spanish.
My grandmother Maria "Mary" Rivera Cummins was born in Mexico City, Mexico. She was a real estate broker and lender. She also bought and sold trust deeds in Los Angles, California. My "Nana" raised me and my sister. That is why I speak Spanish with my family and in my profession.
Mi abuela María Rivera Cummins nació en la Ciudad de México, México. Ella era agente inmobiliaria y prestamista. También compró y vendió escrituras de fideicomiso en Los Angles, California. Mi "Nana" nos crió a mí ya mi hermana. Por eso hablo español con mi familia y en mi profesión.
Below is a helpful English/Spanish GLOSSARY OF REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY TERMS - TÉRMINOS DE LA
INDUSTRIA INMOBILIARIA from National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals (NAHREP) and REMAX.

Se habla Español. We speak Spanish. Mary Cummins Real Estate Appraiser Appraisal Los Angeles California Se habla Español. We speak Spanish. Mary Cummins Real Estate Appraiser Appraisal Los Angeles California



Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the

Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the USDA. Mary Cummins is also a licensed real estate appraiser in Los Angeles, California.


Google+ Mary Cummins, Mary K. Cummins, Mary Katherine Cummins, Mary Cummins-Cobb, Mary, Cummins, Cobb, wildlife, wild, animal, rescue, wildlife rehabilitation, wildlife rehabilitator, fish, game, los angeles, california, united states, squirrel, raccoon, fox, skunk, opossum, coyote, bobcat, manual, instructor, speaker, humane, nuisance, control, pest, trap, exclude, deter, green, non-profit, nonprofit, non, profit, ill, injured, orphaned, exhibit, exhibitor, usda, united states department of agriculture, hsus, humane society, peta, ndart, humane academy, humane officer, animal legal defense fund, animal cruelty, investigation, peace officer, animal, cruelty, abuse, neglect #marycummins #animaladvocates #losangeles #california #wildlife #wildliferehabilitation #wildliferehabilitator #realestate #realestateappraiser #realestateappraisal #lawsuit

Discrimination in Real Estate Appraisals - Fair Housing Act - Mary Cummins Real Estate Appraiser Appraisal Los Angeles California

Mary Cummins real estate appraiser appraisal Los Angeles California Fair Housing Act anti-discrimination Mary Cummins real estate appraiser appraisal Los Angeles California Fair Housing Act anti-discrimination

Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 is commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act of 1968. Since 1968 its protections have been expanded significantly by amendment. The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity within the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development is charged with administering and enforcing this law.
The Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibited the following forms of housing discrimination:
Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of their race, color, religion or national origin. Discrimination on the basis of sex was added in 1974, and people with disabilities and families with children were added to the list of protected classes in 1988.
Discrimination against a person in the terms, conditions or privilege of the sale or rental of a dwelling.
Advertising the sale or rental of a dwelling indicating preference of discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin. This provision was also amended to include sex, disability, and having children.
Coercing, threatening, intimidating, or interfering with a person's enjoyment or exercise of housing rights based on discriminatory reasons or retaliating against a person or organization that aids or encourages the exercise or enjoyment of [fair housing] rights.
Neglecting maintenance and repairs of the units rented by people based on race, religion, sex, or any other discriminatory demographic.
Restricting access to services and amenities on the basis of the renter's race, gender, religion, or nationality.
In 2012, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity issued a regulation prohibiting LGBT discrimination in federally assisted housing programs. The Supreme Court ruled in 2020 that discrimination on the basis of "sex" includes discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. It was not until February 2021 that Housing and Urban Development issued a rule change under President Joe Biden to implement this decision. In addition, many states, cities and towns have passed laws prohibiting discrimination in housing based on sexual orientation and gender identity.
Types of allowed discrimination
Only certain kinds of discrimination are covered by fair housing laws. Landlords are not required by law to rent to any tenant who applies for a property. Landlords can select tenants based on objective business criteria, such as the applicant's ability to pay the rent and take care of the property. Landlords can lawfully discriminate against tenants with bad credit histories or low incomes, and (except in some areas) do not have to rent to tenants who will be receiving Section 8 vouchers. Landlords must be consistent in the screening, treat tenants who are inside and outside the protected classes in the same manner, and should document any legitimate business reason for not renting to a prospective tenant. As of 2010, no federal protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity is provided, but protections exist in some localities.
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development has stated that buyers and renters may discriminate and may request real estate agents representing them to limit home searches to parameters that are discriminatory. The primary purpose of the Fair Housing Act is to protect the buyer's (and renter's) right to seek a dwelling anywhere they choose. It protects the buyer's right to discriminate by prohibiting certain discriminatory acts by sellers, landlords, and real estate agents.

Mary Cummins real estate appraiser appraisal Los Angeles California Fair Housing Act anti-discrimination Mary Cummins real estate appraiser appraisal Los Angeles California Fair Housing Act anti-discrimination



Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the

Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the USDA. Mary Cummins is also a licensed real estate appraiser in Los Angeles, California.


Google+ Mary Cummins, Mary K. Cummins, Mary Katherine Cummins, Mary Cummins-Cobb, Mary, Cummins, Cobb, wildlife, wild, animal, rescue, wildlife rehabilitation, wildlife rehabilitator, fish, game, los angeles, california, united states, squirrel, raccoon, fox, skunk, opossum, coyote, bobcat, manual, instructor, speaker, humane, nuisance, control, pest, trap, exclude, deter, green, non-profit, nonprofit, non, profit, ill, injured, orphaned, exhibit, exhibitor, usda, united states department of agriculture, hsus, humane society, peta, ndart, humane academy, humane officer, animal legal defense fund, animal cruelty, investigation, peace officer, animal, cruelty, abuse, neglect #marycummins #animaladvocates #losangeles #california #wildlife #wildliferehabilitation #wildliferehabilitator #realestate #realestateappraiser #realestateappraisal #lawsuit

Thursday, May 6, 2021

Homeowner claims discrimination in home appraisal by appraiser - Carlette Duffy, Indianapolis, Indiana

Carlette Duffy, Carlette Marie Duffy, discrimination, 1329 fall creek parkway east, indianapolis, indiana, appraisal, appraiser, real estate

UPDATE: One of the appraisers responds to the accusation. Tim Boston stated, "Anytime I put a report out, I prepare with the intention of having to defend that report before a group of my peers," Boston said, "It's all data driven. So it's inherent in the data and I wouldn't know how to change that."


As I noted in the article his value was in line with the three robot values. It was based on numbers and facts.

The article stated this which is false. 

"A number of studies have found that Black-owned homes are undervalued when compared to those of white homeowners. This is especially true in historically Black neighborhoods. A 2018 report by the Brookings Institution finds that adds up to $156 billion in cumulative losses for Black homeowners."

I've read the Brookings "report" which was written by Andre Perry who is on a book tour to sell his book on the same topic. "Black-owned homes" weren't "undervalued" compared to those of "white homeowners." All of the homes in the report were valued by robots who didn't see the homes or homeowners. Appraisers did not appraise them. The robots valued the homes based on location, size, age compared to the sales prices of other very similar nearby homes. That is the basis of real estate valuation theory called "paired sales analysis." The robots did not know the race or color of any homeowner. African Americans, Latinos, POC, immigrants, poor people generally own homes in areas with lower home values than areas which have a higher percentage of predominantly white people. African Americans, Latinos, POC, immigrants are more likely to be poorer than white people. There is research which shows that. Poorer people regardless of color buy homes in cheaper areas because that is what they can afford. No homes were "undervalued." Black homeowners did not suffer any losses in this instance. The areas weren't 100% Black. What about a white person who owned a home in that area. Their home had the same value as a Black person. How does the Brookings report explain that? They don't because they can't because their theory of causation is inherently flawed. 

Again, racism and discrimination are real. Stating a robot is racist, biased and CAUSED black homeowners to lose money is ridiculous. This is correlation and not causation. The correlation is between the financial means of the homeowner and the price of the home they buy and own. 

ORIGINAL: Racism and discrimination in any form should never be allowed. Anyone who discriminates against someone in business especially real estate should be punished according to law. It's a violation of the Fair Housing Act to discriminate in real estate and housing. In the most recent alleged discrimination case and public government complaint Carlette Duffy says she was discriminated against in an appraisal for a cash out refinance of a home at 1329 Fall Creek Pkwy E Dr, Indianapolis, Indiana.
A previous owner who built the home was violently murdered in the home then it burned down in 2015. The land was listed for $15,000 ("This property includes a home that has been destroyed by fire & is being sold 'as-is' as an improved lot, demolition to be (sic) responsibiliy of the buyer.") then someone bought the land for $10,000 then told Building and Safety they were just "remodeling the breezeway" of the legal 3 bed, 1 bath 960 sf home (per plans apx 35' x 27' GLA (13' x 19' is breezeway which is open is not livable, 24' x 18' not attached to GLA of home or built with permits per building and safety)). The property is only 960 sf per the tax roll and Building and Safety. There is a 240 sf enclosed area which is not considered livable. If there is an addition or second bath, it's not to permit or legal. She would have to remove it if she were reported. They rebuilt the interior of the burned home and fixed some fire damage. That person then listed the home for $110,000 as 3 bed, 2 bath 1,400 sf and sold it to Carlette Marie Duffy for about $100,000 July 2017. Based on the comps at the time and history of the home it appears she over paid for the home. I have not personally seen or inspected the home.
2020 Carlette Duffy decides to refinance her home to take money out. You need perfect credit and tons of equity to take cash out of a home. You also need a good income. Carlette's income is online because she works for the government as the Reentry Director for the Office of Public Health. Carlette Duffy filed for Chapter 13 bankruptcy in 2009 (Duffy, Carlette Marie (db) 1:2009bk06962, Carlette Marie Duffy, Indiana Southern Bankruptcy Court 05/18/2009, 01/29/2013). Carlette missed making her payments and defaulted so she converted it to Chapter 7 and dumped her home on the bank in 2013 well after the great recession. As prices were rising that means she took all equity out of the home then couldn't pay back the loan. She was also unemployed with student debts and other permanent liens besides credit card debt and two cars.
Per the complaint March 2020 Carlette Duffy applied for a loan and an appraiser came out to the house. That appraiser appraised it at $125,000 per Carlette. Carlette wanted more cash out so demanded another appraiser. The second appraiser appraised it at $110,000. Carlette who is not an appraiser thought her home was worth $187,000. Again, she over paid for the home in 2017 at $100,000. It had new interiors per the MLS so no upgrades were needed.
Real estate appraisal is a math formula. That is why software programs can and do appraise homes. Below are the three most commonly used appraising programs. Their values for the property as of May 5, 2021 were Zestimate $108,000, Redfn $99,994 and Realtytrac $115,000. This is over a year after the appraisals. Homes have appreciated in the meantime so the robot appraisals could have been lower in March 2020. The blind software programs appraised the home for about what the first two appraisers appraised the home last year. There is no way a software program can be racist or discriminate as it doesn't see the people or even the home. Carlette is still not happy with those values so she complains and probably threatens to sue the lender.
This is when we must mention that Carlette Duffy sued a past employer for racial discrimination 1:2009cv00611 DUFFY v. INDIANA JUVENILE JUSTICE TASK FORCE et al. Carlette lost that lawsuit, appealed and lost again in 2011. The Court ruled she had absolutely no basis to claim discrimination based on the facts. Carlette has evictions, collections, other lawsuits on her civil record which she lost. She also was convicted of "CONSPIRACY/DEALING IN COCAINE OR NARCOTIC DRUG" case # 49G20-9701-CF-012251 in 1998 and sentenced to five years in prison in Indiana. Carlette said her record was expunged but I still see it in the courts so I don't know if it was.
A third appraiser goes out and allegedly appraises the home for $259,000. I have not seen any of these appraisals, don't know the appraisers and am not appraising the home. Based on some comps I ran $259,000 appears very high. I pulled permits and see no legal additions or upgrades to the home since 2016 when it was "remodeled." I personally feel the $259,000 appraisal was too high. The subject is in Flanner House Homes Project on the very edge almost the last house. I think the third appraiser probably used comps from the historical district in the inner core. If you pull comps from Flanner House Homes the value should be closer to the first two appraisals and the robot appraisals.
I'll keep an eye on this complaint and will be sure to post the final outcome. FHCCI should have ordered a new or review appraisal of the three appraisals before filing the complaint. I think the complaint would have ended right there. We shall see. Below is the article and some pics of the home in 2016 and the plans.

#carletteduffy #discrimination #realestate #appraiser #appraisal #indianapolis #indiana #home #bias #racial Carlette Duffy, Carlette Marie Duffy, discrimination, 1329 fall creek parkway east, indianapolis, indiana, appraisal, appraiser, real estate









Below is a photo of the appraisal which Carlette Duffy showed on the news. That makes this is a public document. Because Carlette Duffy contacted the media about this appraisal and her home these items are now issues of public concern. I am commenting about issues of public concern about a public person. 


Below are the tax records for the home. It is legally a six room, three bedroom, one bath house. 





Mary Cummins of Animal Advocates is a wildlife rehabilitator licensed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the USDA. Mary Cummins is also a licensed real estate appraiser in Los Angeles, California.


Google+ Mary Cummins, Mary K. Cummins, Mary Katherine Cummins, Mary Cummins-Cobb, Mary, Cummins, Cobb, wildlife, wild, animal, rescue, wildlife rehabilitation, wildlife rehabilitator, fish, game, los angeles, california, united states, squirrel, raccoon, fox, skunk, opossum, coyote, bobcat, manual, instructor, speaker, humane, nuisance, control, pest, trap, exclude, deter, green, non-profit, nonprofit, non, profit, ill, injured, orphaned, exhibit, exhibitor, usda, united states department of agriculture, hsus, humane society, peta, ndart, humane academy, humane officer, animal legal defense fund, animal cruelty, investigation, peace officer, animal, cruelty, abuse, neglect #marycummins #animaladvocates #losangeles #california #wildlife #wildliferehabilitation #wildliferehabilitator #realestate #realestateappraiser #realestateappraisal #lawsuit